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 adipose tissue
making metabolically active brown fat from white fat-derived stem cells

IMAGE: Tissue Engineering brings together scientific and medical experts in the fields of biomedical engineering, material science, molecular and cellular biology, and genetic engineering.
view more Credit: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishersNew Rochelle, NY, March 3, 2017--Researchers have demonstrated the potential to engineer brown adipose tissue, which has therapeutic promise to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, from white adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). The study describes a method to produce brown fat tissue, which exists in only small amounts in adults, and is published in Tissue Engineering, Part A, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the Tissue Engineering website until April 3, 2017.Jenn

study shows adipose stem cells may be the cell of choice for therapeutic applica

An international team of researchers, funded by Morris Animal Foundation, has shown that adipose (fat) stem cells might be the preferred stem cell type for use in canine therapeutic applications, including orthopedic diseases and injury.Researchers at the University of Guelph, University of Western Ontario and Aarhus University, Denmark, ran a battery of tests comparing the physiology characteristics of stem cells derived from adipose tissue versus bone marrow. They found that stem cells from both sources had similar functional properties, including tissue generation and immunomodulating capabilities (ability to adjust immune response), but adipose stem cells grow at a faster rate than bone marrow stem cells. Harvesting adipose stem cells also is less invasive than harvesting bone marrow.

humans have three times more brown body fat

IMAGE: The two scientists Tobias Fromme (l.) and Carlos Gerngross revealed that some persons have an easier time activating their brown fat, or even have more of it.
view more Credit: (Photo: TUM/ Astrid Eckert)Compared to white fat, brown body fat burns through energy at an extraordinary rate. However, until now the proportion of brown fat in humans was thought to be quite small. Now a study conducted by researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has shown: The quantity of brown fat in humans is three times greater than previously known. As a consequence, new obesity and diabetes drugs that activate brown adipose tissue are expected to be more effective. For the study, published in the Journal of Nuclear Medicine, nearly 3,000 PET scans of 1644 patients were analyzed. PET i

travelling through scattering tissue with far less light

Medical applications of light, looking inside human tissue, often are limited by the highly scattering nature of tissue. Inuitively, a lower limit of one photon per camera pixel is assumed. Scientists of the University of Twente in The Netherlands and Caltech in Pasadena, USA, prove that the lower limit is actually much lower, thus opening possibilities of going deeper into tissue with less light.

breakthrough in live coral imaging

Corals are calcifying animals and are the prime architects of the most diverse marine ecosystem, the coral reefs. The coral animal harbors tiny microalgae as symbionts in its tissue, where they fix CO2 via photosynthesis and provide the animal host with organic carbon for its respiration. In turn, the microalgae obtain shelter and nutrients in the coral tissue, which extends over a complex calcium carbonate skeleton deposited by the animal host.

sulforaphane, a phytochemical in broccoli sprouts, ameliorates obesity

IMAGE: The two functions of sulforaphane uncovered by the current study are; 1) ameliorating obesity by adipose tissue browning to augment energy consumption and 2) improving 'high-fat' gut bacterial flora and...
view more Credit: Kanazawa University[Background]Sulforaphane*1, a phytochemical contained in broccoli sprouts at relatively high concentrations, has been known to exert effects of cancer prevention by activating a transcription factor, Nrf2 (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2), which regulates the balance of oxidation - reduction in the cell, and by enhancing anti-oxidation ability of the body and detoxication of chemical compounds taken into the body. On the other hand, when the balance of oxidation - reduction is deteriorated due to hyper nutrition and obesity, it ha

breakthrough in live coral imaging

Corals are calcifying animals and are the prime architects of the most diverse marine ecosystem, the coral reefs. The coral animal harbors tiny microalgae as symbionts in its tissue, where they fix CO2 via photosynthesis and provide the animal host with organic carbon for its respiration. In turn, the microalgae obtain shelter and nutrients in the coral tissue, which extends over a complex calcium carbonate skeleton deposited by the animal host.
The coral host takes several measures to optimize light harvesting of its symbionts, while avoiding excess light exposure. This includes tissue contraction and relaxation as well as synthesis of coral host pigments, including brightly fluorescent protein complexes similar to the well-known green fluorescent proteins that are widely used as cell mar

breakthrough in live coral imaging

Staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis). Credit: WikipediaCorals are calcifying animals and are the prime architects of the most diverse marine ecosystem, the coral reefs. The coral animal harbors tiny microalgae as symbionts in its tissue, where they fix CO2 via photosynthesis and provide the animal host with organic carbon for its respiration. In turn, the microalgae obtain shelter and nutrients in the coral tissue, which extends over a complex calcium carbonate skeleton deposited by the animal host.
The coral host takes several measures to optimize light harvesting of its symbionts, while avoiding excess light exposure. This includes tissue contraction and relaxation as well as synthesis of coral host pigments, including brightly fluorescent protein complexes similar to the well-known g

presstv-skeleton of new marine reptile discovered in mexico

Mexico has revealed a well-preserved complete skeleton of a new marine reptile that was discovered in the country’s northeast.The skeleton is reportedly 93 million years old. The details of tissue mass and scales of the remains have never been previously seen in other fossils.The fossilized remains of the ancient reptile show its soft skeletal tissue structure, from its neck, flippers, torso and tail. The reptile is estimated to have been 180 centimeters long, with a flipper span of nearly 120 centimeters.Scientists believe Mexico is a prime stamping ground for dinosaur discoveries. Due to the region's diverse climatic factors such as erosion unearthing fossils and other dinosaur remains is commonplace in the country’s northern arid areas.

get ready for robots made with human flesh

Enlarge/ Oh hey, could you zip up my flesh? I can't reach.Share this storyTwo University of Oxford biomedical researchers are calling for robots to be built with real human tissue, and they say the technology is there if we only choose to develop it. Writing in Science Robotics, Pierre-Alexis Mouthuy and Andrew Carr argue that humanoid robots could be the exact tool we need to create muscle and tendon grafts that actually work. Right now, tissue engineering relies on bioreactors to grow sheets of cells. These machines often look like large fish tanks, filled with a rich soup of nutrients and chemicals that cells need to grow on a specialized trellis. The problem, explain Mouthuy and Carr, is that bioreactors currently "fail to mimic the real mechanical environment for cells." In other word

boosting the lifetime and effectiveness of biomedical devices

A research team led by the University of Delaware's David Martin has discovered a new approach to boosting the lifetime and effectiveness of electronic biomedical devices. The discovery will help the devices better communicate with neural tissue by improving adhesion. Credit: University of DelawareModern electronic biomedical devices are enabling a wide range of sophisticated health interventions, from seizure detection and Parkinson's disease therapy to functional artificial limbs, cochlear implants, and smart contact lenses.
An effective direct interfacing material is essential to communication between these devices and neural tissue, which includes nerves and the brain.In recent years, a conjugated polymer known as PEDOT—widely used in applications such as energy conversion and storag

study: neanderthal genes are still affecting humans

Neanderthals haven’t existed for the better part of 40,000 years, but their genes continue to affect present day humans in important ways. According to a new study, Neanderthal DNA resulting from the mating of Neanderthals with humans is still active in 52 varieties of human tissue, influencing gene expression. This influence includes things like making people taller and reducing one’s odds of developing schizophrenia.This work and others like it have been made possible via the sequencing of Neanderthal DNA that was performed successfully back in 2008. Most recently, researchers being led by the University of Washington’s Joshua Akey used that DNA and compared it to DNA taken from more than 200 volunteers located in the United States.Doing so, they discovered dozens of tissue types in whic

exercise-induced hormone irisin linked to new mechanisms for bone metabolism

BOSTON (March 3, 2017)--Two weeks of voluntary wheel running induces higher expression of irisin--a fat-burning hormone that is released during exercise--in bone tissue in mice. In addition, systemic administration of irisin increased bone formation and thickness, mimicking the effects of exercise on the mouse skeletal system. The findings demonstrate a potential new mechanism for the regulation of bone metabolism.
The study was led by scientists from Tufts University School of Dental Medicine (TUSDM) and published in Bone Research.
"Our results provide insight into the complex regulatory interplay of muscle, bone and fat tissues. Increased irisin levels in circulation upon systemic administration can recapitulate part of the beneficial effects of exercise in the skeletal system," said

3-d-printed bioabsorbable scaffold for acl reconstruction with bone regeneration

IMAGE: Tissue Engineering brings together scientific and medical experts in the fields of biomedical engineering, material science, molecular and cellular biology, and genetic engineering.
view more Credit: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishersNew Rochelle, NY, February 27, 2017--Researchers have designed a 3D-printed porous scaffold for use in reconstructing ruptured anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) in the knee and engineered it to deliver a human bone-promoting protein over an extended period of time to improve bone regeneration. A study describing the composition of the scaffold and comparing different delivery methods for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) is published in Tissue Engineering, Part A, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers.

nanoengineers 3-d print biomimetic blood vessel networks

IMAGE: Nanoengineering professor Shaochen Chen 3-D prints a biomimetic blood vessel network.
view more Credit: Erik Jepsen/UC San Diego PublicationsNanoengineers at the University of California San Diego have 3D printed a lifelike, functional blood vessel network that could pave the way toward artificial organs and regenerative therapies. The new research, led by nanoengineering professor Shaochen Chen, addresses one of the biggest challenges in tissue engineering: creating lifelike tissues and organs with functioning vasculature -- networks of blood vessels that can transport blood, nutrients, waste and other biological materials -- and do so safely when implanted inside the body.Researchers from other labs have used different 3D printing technologies to create artificial blood vessels.

boosting the lifetime and effectiveness of biomedical devices

Modern electronic biomedical devices are enabling a wide range of sophisticated health interventions, from seizure detection and Parkinson's disease therapy to functional artificial limbs, cochlear implants, and smart contact lenses.An effective direct interfacing material is essential to communication between these devices and neural tissue, which includes nerves and the brain. In recent years, a conjugated polymer known as PEDOT -- widely used in applications such as energy conversion and storage, organic light-emitting diodes, electrochemical transistors, and sensing -- has been investigated for its potential to serve as this interface.In some cases, however, the low mechanical stability and relatively limited adhesion of conjugated polymers like PEDOT -- short for poly (3,4-ethylene di

graduate research assistant

Department: Mechanical Engineering
Institution: Temple University
This position is for a full-time or half-time PhD engineering student for a funded research project on the biomechanics of traumatic brain injury. Understanding of brain anatomy and physiology is required and experience with tissue histology is preferred. ...
(Visit http://academickeys.com/r?job=90306&tag=90306-rss for the complete position description.)

gift of life's annual donatelife walk around lake burley griffin draws thousands

Governor-General Sir Peter Cosgrove, Lady Cosgrove, federal Health Minister Greg Hunt, ACT Health Minister Meegan Fitzharris, Labor's spokeswoman on health Catherine King and thousands of Canberrans helped raise the issue of organ donation at the annual DonateLife Walk around Lake Burley Griffin on Wednesday morning.The walk is organised by Gift of Life, with president David O'Leary saying about 4500 people took part.
Federal Health Minister Greg Hunt, ACT Health Minister Meegan Fitzharris, Governor-General Sir Peter Cosgrove and Gift of Life president David O'Leary at the DonateLife Walk around Lake Burley Griffin on Wednesday morning. Photo: Irene Dowdy"I'm very happy with that. I think that's a lot of people to turn out for walk of this kind," he said."It shows there's great interest

gift of life's annual donatelife walk around lake burley griffin draws thousands

Governor-General Sir Peter Cosgrove, Lady Cosgrove, federal Health Minister Greg Hunt, ACT Health Minister Meegan Fitzharris, Labor's spokeswoman on health Catherine King and thousands of Canberrans helped raise the issue of organ donation at the annual DonateLife Walk around Lake Burley Griffin on Wednesday morning.The walk is organised by Gift of Life, with president David O'Leary saying about 4500 people took part.
Federal Health Minister Greg Hunt, ACT Health Minister Meegan Fitzharris, Governor-General Sir Peter Cosgrove and Gift of Life president David O'Leary at the DonateLife Walk around Lake Burley Griffin on Wednesday morning. Photo: Irene Dowdy"I'm very happy with that. I think that's a lot of people to turn out for walk of this kind," he said."It shows there's great interest

cell 'stickiness' could indicate metastatic potential

How strongly tumor cells adhere to the surrounding tissue could indicate the likelihood that cancer will spread to other parts of the body, according to a study published February 28 in Biophysical Journal. Using a spinning disc device, the researchers found that tumor cells characterized by weak adhesion strength are more likely to migrate and invade other tissues compared with strongly adherent cells. The study may provide a much-needed marker to identify highly metastatic cells within a broader tumor cell population.

robots could wear flesh to help form transplants

Naturally, this robotic conditioning would be most useful for higher-quality transplants. You could even personalize transplants by modifying the robot to reflect a patient's anatomy. However, the Oxford team sees other uses. It could reduce the use of animal testing in pre-clinical trials, and could even represent a step toward "biohybrid humanoids" that combine real tissue with mechanical systems. We're not so sure people are looking forward to that last part (it sounds like the background for a Terminator movie), but the discovery is great news overall for burn victims and others who need transplants. Instead of waiting weeks for replacements to grow on their own bodies, they could have doctors print transplants that get a robotic shakedown in a much shorter time.

scientists discover how obesity stops 'guardian immune cells' from doing their j

Scientists have uncovered the physiological mechanics underlying inflammation and obesity by tracking the actions of 'guardian immune cells' in response to changes in diet. They believe their work may herald a new era of research now that they have new therapeutic targets to prevent and control obesity-related inflammation and metabolic disease.The scientists, led by Professor Lydia Lynch of Trinity College Dublin and Harvard Medical School, discovered that special guardian immune cells are unable to function properly once obesity is established, which results in severe inflammation and metabolic dysfunction.These guardian immune cells, called Adipose Type One Innate Lymphoid Cells, or ILCs, were only recently discovered by Professor Lynch and her team. They live in our fat, and are charge

graduate student position(s) - doctoral and master's

Department: Biomedical Engineering
Institution: Rowan University
Graduate Student Position(s) - Doctoral and Master's
The Department of Biomedical Engineering at Rowan University is recruiting outstanding
candidates for our doctoral and master’s programs. Ongoing faculty-led biomedical research at
Rowan University includes basic and translational research as well as commercialization in fields
including biomaterials, tissue engineering, bi...
(Visit http://academickeys.com/r?job=90355&tag=90355-rss for the complete position description.)

workout your brain by learning a new word every day, you will get smarter

Have you ever had the feeling of speechless because you are running out of words to speak your mind? Or have you ever read a word that you are familiar with but suddenly cannot recognize its meaning? Sometimes there also might be the case that you have a word in mind but you forget how to spell it right. These situations do not prove you are not intelligent enough but somehow show that your brain needs some more training.Workouts aren’t just for your body, your brain needs that too.The brain, anatomically speaking, cannot be called a muscle, though it is partly composed of muscle tissue.There’s a very good reason though why experts use the analogy of exercising your brain as if it were a muscle. In both cases, you can be sure that if you don’t use it you’ll lose it. Evidence suggests that

workout your brain by learning a new word every day, you will get smarter

Have you ever had the feeling of speechless because you are running out of words to speak your mind? Or have you ever read a word that you are familiar with but suddenly cannot recognize its meaning? Sometimes there also might be the case that you have a word in mind but you forget how to spell it right. These situations do not prove you are not intelligent enough but somehow show that your brain needs some more training.Workouts aren’t just for your body, your brain needs that too.The brain, anatomically speaking, cannot be called a muscle, though it is partly composed of muscle tissue.There’s a very good reason though why experts use the analogy of exercising your brain as if it were a muscle. In both cases, you can be sure that if you don’t use it you’ll lose it. Evidence suggests that

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