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with synthetic biology software, geneticists design living organisms from scratc

The first time geneticist Jef Boeke designed a synthetic chromosome, he sometimes wrote and edited its DNA sequence in a Microsoft Word document. His goal was to create a slightly altered version of yeast chromosome 9, the shortest of the 16 chromosomes that make up the organism’s genome and contain all the operating instructions for life. He started with the short chromosome’s right arm, but even this task was daunting. Its DNA code consisted of 90,000 “letters,” the molecules referred to as A, C, G, and T that are arranged in particular sequence to encode biological function.Painstakingly, Boeke went through the code, making changes that he thought would be scientifically interesting or that would make the chromosome more stable. This misery drove him to seek help from student Sarah Rich

with synthetic biology software, geneticists design living organisms from scratc

The first time geneticist Jef Boeke designed a synthetic chromosome, he sometimes wrote and edited its DNA sequence in a Microsoft Word document. His goal was to create a slightly altered version of yeast chromosome 9, the shortest of the 16 chromosomes that make up the organism’s genome and contain all the operating instructions for life. He started with the short chromosome’s right arm, but even this task was daunting. Its DNA code consisted of 90,000 “letters,” the molecules referred to as A, C, G, and T that are arranged in particular sequence to encode biological function.Painstakingly, Boeke went through the code, making changes that he thought would be scientifically interesting or that would make the chromosome more stable. This misery drove him to seek help from student Sarah Rich

with synthetic biology software, geneticists design living organisms from scratc

The first time geneticist Jef Boeke designed a synthetic chromosome, he sometimes wrote and edited its DNA sequence in a Microsoft Word document. His goal was to create a slightly altered version of yeast chromosome 9, the shortest of the 16 chromosomes that make up the organism’s genome and contain all the operating instructions for life. He started with the short chromosome’s right arm, but even this task was daunting. Its DNA code consisted of 90,000 “letters,” the molecules referred to as A, C, G, and T that are arranged in particular sequence to encode biological function. Painstakingly, Boeke went through the code, making changes that he thought would be scientifically interesting or that would make the chromosome more stable.  Once Boeke finished his design, his team built the synth

discovery of a novel chromosome segregation mechanism during cell division

Researchers from Japan used fission yeast to show that introns were involved in the promotion of heterochromatin structure formation. Credit: Associate Professor Tokio TaniWhen cells divide, chromosomes need to be evenly segregated between daughter cells. This equal distribution of chromosomes is very important to accurately pass on genetic information to the next generation. Abnormal chromosomal segregation, on the other hand, can cause cell death (apoptosis) or diseases like Down syndrome and cancer. In order for chromosomes to equally divide, it is necessary first to bind the filamentous spindle fiber to a specific region, the centromere, of the chromosome. For the spindle fiber to be correctly joined, it is essential that a part of the chromosome has a special structure called heteroch

biology team makes breakthrough in synthetic yeast project

Sacharomyces cerevisiae cells in DIC microscopy. Credit: Wikipedia.Led by Tianjin University Professor Ying-Jin Yuan, TJU's synthetic biology team has completed the synthesis of redesigned yeast chromosomes synV and synX with the two studies published in Science on March 10, 2017.
The publications are part of the effort to chemically synthesize the designer yeast genome (Sc 2.0), in collaboration with NYU and John Hopkins in the US, Tsinghua University, BGI-Shenzhen in China, the University of Edinburgh in the UK, and the Institut Pasteur and Sorbonne Universités in France, as well as industry partners.TJU is keen to integrate frontier science into student training. During the synthesis of the designer chromosome SynV, the "Build-A-Genome (BAG) China" course played a crucial role. In thi

french woman with down’s syndrome presents the weather

A French woman with Down's Syndrome fulfilled a lifelong ambition on Sunday by presenting the weather forecast on national television.Mélanie Ségard , 21, provided a summary of the weekend weather on France 2 after challenging broadcasters to take her on if she received 100,000 likes on her Facebook page "Melanie can do it," Agence France-Presse reports.The page, set up by advocacy group UNAPEI, picked up 200,000 likes within ten days, earning Segard two offers from French television channels. She is also set to present the weather on news channel BFMTV at the end of the month."I've done it, I'm finally a weather girl," Ségard tweeted after the broadcast, "I am different, but I can do lots of things."In an interview with French newspaper Le Parisien, Segard — who reportedly cannot read or

a tale of 2 states

Researchers have identified a set of molecular 'flags' that are present on the surface of human stem cells. Stem cells are cells that have the potential to differentiate into a variety of specialised cells. By recognising the flags, researchers can now accurately track and investigate stem cells as the cells transition between different states. This approach has revealed new insights into the timing and coordination of the changes in gene activity and modifications to the DNA that occur as cells are reprogrammed from one state to another. These findings will open up new ways to improve the efficiency of cell reprogramming and to drive stem cells to become different types of specialised cell. These are important steps towards future applications in regenerative medicine, which would require

supreme court transgender rulings must account for science

Bruno Ehrs—Getty ImagesA person’s biological sex seems simple but is deceptively complex. It appears to be binary: An XX chromosomal pair is female, and an XY chromosomal pair is male. Doctors look at a newborn’s genitalia, pronounce the baby a boy or a girl, and the birth certificate reflects that sex assignment.Deep-seated religious beliefs, cultural constructs, the regulation of sports (such as the rules confronted by Texas high-school wrestler Mack Beggs) and recent laws are premised on the bedrock belief that each of us is either a man or a woman. Yet the reality is that today in the United States alone there are approximately one million people who — from the moment of birth — cannot clearly be defined as either male or female.This physiological truth is unrelated to whether someone

agriculture, dietary changes, and adaptations in fat metabolism from ancient to

Credit: CC0 Public DomainGood vs bad cholesterol. Margarine vs butter. Red meat vs. vegan. The causal links between fats and health have been a hotly debated topic for scientists, physicians and the public.
Now, evolutionary biologists are weighing in based on the increasing power of DNA analyses to explore how changes in diet over eons have caused human adaptations to genes regulating fat metabolism.Nestled on the long arm of chromosome 11, two essential genes serve as key traffic police in the synthesis of vital fatty acids. These genes, called fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1 and 2), change dietary fat into components necessary for the heart, brain and muscle. They assist in the conversion of short-chain omega-3 and omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to long-chain PUFAs.

une jeune trisomique a présenté la météo pour montrer le handicap sous un jour p

Principale cause génétique de déficit mental, la trisomie 21 est une anomalie chromosomique qui concerne 65 000 personnes en France.Mélanie Ségard, une jeune femme trisomique de 21 ans, a présenté, mardi 14 mars au soir, la météo sur une chaîne de télévision nationale. Cette initiative avait pour objectif de mettre en lumière ce handicap sous un jour positif.A l’approche de la journée mondiale de la trisomie 21, le 21 mars, l’Unapei a choisi cette jeune femme pour porter« un message : “Je suis capable dès lors qu’on me donne la possibilité, que je suis accompagnée par la société” », a expliqué le président de l’Union nationale des associations de parents et amis de personnes handicapées mentales, Luc Gateau.« A 100 000 likes, je présente la météo à la TV », avait lancé Mélanie Ségard dans

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