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 crystal structure reveals new details of nonstandard rna transcription
crystal structure reveals new details of nonstandard rna transcription

IMAGE: Schematic of alternative pathways for transcription elongation complex formation. During canonical transcription (left) the growing strand of RNA extends toward the RNA exit channel of RNA polymerase. New, high-resolution crystal...
view more Credit: Murakami laboratory, Penn State UniversityOut through the window: Crystal structure reveals details of nonstandard RNA transcriptionUniversity Park, PA -- High-resolution crystal structure reveals a new pathway for RNA during a nontraditional form of transcription -- the process by which RNA is produced from a DNA template. Caught during the act of reiterative transcription, a form of transcription in which a single base of DNA (represented by the letters A, T, C, and G) codes for several corresponding bases in the RNA (one G in DNA l

nagoya physicists resolve long-standing mystery of structure-less transition

Nagoya, Japan -- We normally associate conduction of electricity with metals. However, some of the high measured conductivities are found in certain organic molecular crystals. Metallic, semiconducting and even superconducting properties can be achieved in these materials, which have interested scientists for decades. Changing temperature or pressure causes phase transitions in the crystal structure of molecular conductors and their related conduction properties. Scientists can usually determine the crystal structure using X-ray diffraction. However, structural change accompanying phase transition in a particular organic crystal (TMTTF)2PF6 has defied examination for almost 40 years.Now, a research team at Nagoya University has finally explained the mysterious structural changes of this ph

visualization of transcription initiation at single-molecule resolution

A novel approach developed at the Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research (FMI) has allowed scientists in Dirk Schübeler's group to dissect and quantify the individual steps of transcription initiation. Unexpectedly, they observed that RNA polymerases frequently dissociate from the DNA template, rather than pause, before transcription continues. They thus gained new mechanistic insights into gene regulation.

researchers crack structure of key protein in zika virus

IMAGE: The image shows the crystal structure of ZIKV NS5 protein. The regions with different colors represent individual domains or motifs of ZIKV NS5. The black circle marks the location of...
view more Credit: Song lab, UC Riverside.RIVERSIDE, Calif. - Zika virus (ZIKV), which causes Zika virus disease, is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito. An infected pregnant woman can pass ZIKV to her fetus during pregnancy or around the time of birth. Sex is yet another way for infected persons to transmit ZIKV to others.The genomic replication of the virus is made possible by its "NS5" protein. This function of ZIKV NS5 is unique to the virus, making it an ideal target for anti-viral drug development. Currently, there is no vaccin

researchers crack structure of key protein in zika virus

The crystal structure of ZIKV NS5 protein. The regions with different colors represent individual domains or motifs of ZIKV NS5. The black circle marks the location of the potential inhibitor-binding site. Credit: Song lab, UC Riverside.Zika virus (ZIKV), which causes Zika virus disease, is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito. An infected pregnant woman can pass ZIKV to her fetus during pregnancy or around the time of birth. Sex is yet another way for infected persons to transmit ZIKV to others.
The genomic replication of the virus is made possible by its "NS5" protein. This function of ZIKV NS5 is unique to the virus, making it an ideal target for anti-viral drug development. Currently, there is no vaccine or medicine to

physicists resolve long-standing mystery of structure-less transition

Electron density distribution of the frontier orbital of a TMTTF molecule. Electrons of the constituent atoms of the molecule can be considered as either core electrons, which have no interactions with the surroundings, or electrons of frontier orbitals, which determine many physical properties of the molecule. We succeeded in visualizing the frontier molecular orbital distribution of a TMTTF by precise structural analysis using a core differential Fourier synthesis (CDFS) method. Credit: Shunsuke KitouNagoya University-led team of physicists use a synchrotron radiation X-ray source to probe a so-called "structure-less" transition and develop a new understanding of molecular conductors.
We normally associate conduction of electricity with metals. However, some of the high measured conduc

rattling dna hustles transcribers to targets

Imagine if a dense thicket didn't obstruct your path but instead picked you up and shuttled you through the forest. That's what tightly packed DNA might be doing with important life molecules to get them where they're needed on time.New simulations of DNA as a transport conduit could shatter the way scientists have thought about how large molecules called transcription factors diffuse on their way to carry out genetic missions, according to a study by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The simulations add important brush strokes to our picture of elusive inner mechanics of cells.The simulations strongly support the hypothesis that, in a live cell, DNA is in constant motion, making it the dominant mover of transcription factors, to their target sites on DNA. There, the fact

marriage of microscopy techniques reveals 3-d structure of critical protein comp

Researchers at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research have solved the three-dimensional structure of a complex that is essential for the correct sorting of chromosomes into eggs and sperm during reproductive cell division or meiosis.

novel nozzle saves crystals | eurekalert! science news

IMAGE: Radiograph of the working nozzle, showing the inner protein stream surrounded by the ethanol jet.
view more Credit: Credit: Dominik Oberthuer, DESYScientists are interested in the spatial structure of proteins, as it reveals much about the workings of these biomolecules. This knowledge can lead to a better understanding of the functions of biomolecules and to tailored medicines. X-ray crystallography is the prime tool to solve protein structures. However, it requires to grow crystals of the proteins under investigation. When X-rays hit these crystals, they are diffracted from the atoms to form a characteristic pattern from which the spatial structure of the crystal -- and hence the protein molecules -- can be calculated.However, many proteins do not like being squeezed into crysta

rattling dna hustles transcribers to targets

Naturally occurring DNA is in constant motion, researchers hypothesize, and transports large transcription factors (depicted in green) through its tangles until they reach sites where they bind and carry out their activity. Here a still image from a very large, unique simulation. Credit: Georgia Tech / Edmond Chow / Jeff SkolnickImagine if a dense thicket didn't obstruct your path but instead picked you up and shuttled you through the forest. That's what tightly packed DNA might be doing with important life molecules to get them where they're needed on time.
New simulations of DNA as a transport conduit could shatter the way scientists have thought about how large molecules called transcription factors diffuse on their way to carry out genetic missions, according to a study by researcher

new technique unveils 'matrix' inside tissues and tumors

IMAGE: The extracellular matrix structure revealed. The structure of a de-cellularized lymphatic metastasis from a breast cancer.
view more Credit: Image by Alejandro Mayorca-Guiliani.The matrix surrounds the cells in every organ of our bodies, and provides shape and structure to the organ. The matrix has a profound impact on how cells behave, so drives the progression of diseases such as cancer.
A team of researchers from the Biotech Research & Innovation Centre (BRIC) at the University of Copenhagen, led by Professor Janine Erler, has developed a new technique published in Nature Medicine this month, that reveals the inner structure of organs and tumours by removing cells but leaving the matrix completely unaltered.
The three-dimensional structure of this matrix has never been seen i

space station crew cultivates crystals for drug development

Crystal formation within a 50 millimeter loop, taken on Expedition 6. Crystal growth investigations have been occurring on the station since before humans lived there because of the unique environment microgravity provides. Credit: NASACrew members aboard the International Space Station will begin conducting research this week to improve the way we grow crystals on Earth. The information gained from the experiments could speed up the process for drug development, benefiting humans around the world.
Proteins serve an important role within the human body. Without them, the body wouldn't be able to regulate, repair or protect itself. Many proteins are too small to be studied even under a microscope, and must be crystallized in order to determine their 3-D structures. These structures tell r

dynamic dna helps ward off gene damage, study reveals

Researchers have identified properties in DNA's protective structure that could transform the way scientists think about the human genome. Molecules involved in DNA's supportive scaffolding -- once thought to be fixed -- go through dynamic and responsive changes to shield against mutations, the research shows. Experts say this finding is crucial to understanding DNA damage and genome organisation and could impact current thinking on DNA-linked diseases, including cancers.In human cells, DNA is wrapped around proteins to form chromatin. Chromatin shields DNA from damage and regulates what genetic information can be read -- a process known as transcription. Researchers -- led by the University of Edinburgh -- showed that a chemical called scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A) binds to specifi

diy crystal-makers get refurbished online cookbook

IMAGE: One example of the sorts of 3-D crystalline structures included in a relaunch of Crystal Lattice Structures, a venerable online 'cookbook' for chemists.
view more Credit: Cormac Toher, Duke UniversityDURHAM, N.C. -- In response to popular demand, materials scientists at Duke University have resurrected an online cookbook of crystalline structures that started when the World Wide Web was Netscape Navigator and HTML 1.0.In 1995, Michael Mehl, then a scientist at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, began collecting, cataloguing and sharing information about crystalline structures on a basic website for colleagues. Researchers needed a reference catalogue to guide their efforts because crystals form hundreds of different structures in nature. Chemists use crystals as handy building bl

umidigi crystal plus, variante con snapdragon 835 in arrivo ?

Secondo quanto emerge dal sito ufficiale del produttore UMIDIGI, una variante premium di Crystal potrebbe essere svelata tra poco meno di 15 giorni. Parliamo di una versione potenziata chiamata Crystal Plus, caratterizzata dalla presenza di un processore Snapdragon 835, 6 GB di RAM e 128 GB di spazio storage.Il sito non rivela altri dettagli al momento, sappiamo però che questo smartphone sarà disponibile in tre differenti versioni, Crystal, Crystal Pro e Crystal Plus, con quest'ultimo che a quanto pare, potrebbe addirittura porsi in competizione diretta con i principali top gamma del 2017.Siamo molto interessati verso questo modello borderless, con il quale UMIDIGI pare punti a coprire ogni fascia del mercato, ponendosi in competizione diretta con Mi Mix per quanto riguarda il design, ter

x-ray study reveals way to control molecular vibrations that transmit heat

IMAGE: The colorful scattering pattern at left reveals molecular level structural information about the layered smectic phase of a liquid crystal material. The inner arcs indicate that the molecules are arrayed...
view more Credit: Brookhaven National LaboratoryUPTON, NY--Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a new way to track dynamic molecular features in soft materials, including the high-frequency molecular vibrations that transmit waves of heat, sound, and other forms of energy. Controlling these vibrational waves in soft materials such as polymers or liquid crystal compounds could lead to a range of energy-inspired innovations--from thermal and acoustic insulators, to ways to convert waste heat into electricity, or light i

discovery of a novel chromosome segregation mechanism during cell division

Researchers from Japan used fission yeast to show that introns were involved in the promotion of heterochromatin structure formation. Credit: Associate Professor Tokio TaniWhen cells divide, chromosomes need to be evenly segregated between daughter cells. This equal distribution of chromosomes is very important to accurately pass on genetic information to the next generation. Abnormal chromosomal segregation, on the other hand, can cause cell death (apoptosis) or diseases like Down syndrome and cancer. In order for chromosomes to equally divide, it is necessary first to bind the filamentous spindle fiber to a specific region, the centromere, of the chromosome. For the spindle fiber to be correctly joined, it is essential that a part of the chromosome has a special structure called heteroch

ai takes the headaches out of transcribing voice recordings

Ask many interviewers about their least favorite part of the job and they'll almost always point to transcription. It can take hours to turn even a short chat into text, which is a serious pain for everyone from reporters to police interrogators. China tech giant Baidu may have a smarter approach: artificial intelligence. It just released a beta for SwiftScribe, a transcription app that uses a neural network to make sense of speech. The software not only promises relatively accurate speech-to-text processing thanks to training on "thousands of hours" of recordings, but learns from edits. It should account more for how people actually speak, saving you from making a load of edits.

researchers show how a cancer gene protects genome organization

CHAPEL HILL, NC - UNC School of Medicine researchers have cracked a long-standing mystery about an important enzyme found in virtually all organisms other than bacteria. The basic science finding may have implications for understanding cancer development and how to halt it.Researchers have known that the enzyme Set2 is important for transcribing genes - the process of making strands of RNA from the DNA. Transcription is critical for making proteins and other functional molecules. But Set2's precise role in transcription hasn't been clear. Now, UNC scientists discovered that the enzyme is particularly important for keeping transcription working properly when cells are under stress. Without Set2, cells that become stressed through the lack of nutrients begin mis-transcribing genes in a way t

the nitty-gritty behind how onions make you cry

Adding onions to a recipe can make a meal taste rich and savory, but cutting up the onion can be brutal.  Onions release a compound called lachrymatory factor (LF), which makes the eyes sting and water. Scientists know that a certain enzyme causes this irritating compound to form but precisely how it helps LF form in the onion remained an open question. Now, one group reports in ACS Chemical Biology that they have the answer.
 
According to the National Onion Association, the average American consumes 20 pounds of onions each year. When an onion is cut, it has a natural defense mechanism that springs into action, producing LF. This kind of compound is rare -- only four known natural types exist. An enzyme in the onion known as lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) spurs production of LF in

researchers id new mechanism for keeping dna protein in line

IMAGE: Shown is the crystal structure of the FEN1 protein bound to its target DNA. Researchers found that single-stranded flaps are threaded through a tunnel in FEN1. The unexpected inversion of...
view more Credit: Susan Tsutakawa/Berkeley LabThe actions of a protein used for DNA replication and repair are guided by electrostatic forces known as phosphate steering, a finding that not only reveals key details about a vital process in healthy cells, but provides new directions for cancer treatment research.The findings, published this week in the journal Nature Communications, focus on an enzyme called flap endonuclease 1, or FEN1. Using a combination of crystallographic, biochemical, and genetic analyses, researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Be

accessing dna in the cell's powerhouse to treat disease

IMAGE: This is a schematic illustration of a mitochondria-specific DNA-based synthetic ligand, called MITO-PIPs that selectively read a target DNA sequence and alter gene transcription.
view more Credit: Kyoto University iCeMSFor the first time, a synthetic compound has been made that can bind to DNA in the cells' energy powerhouses, suppressing a gene associated with nerve and muscle disease.Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PIPs) are compounds that can read specific DNA sequences inside living cells and silence disease-causing genes. They prevent proteins, called transcription factors, from binding to specific parts of the DNA strand, thus suppressing the transcription of DNA into RNA. Most DNA is found in the nucleus. But mitochondria, the cell's powerhouses, also host a small amount of D

accessing dna in the cell's powerhouse to treat disease

A schematic illustration of a mitochondria-specific DNA-based synthetic ligand, called MITO-PIPs that selectively read a target DNA sequence and alter gene transcription. Credit: Kyoto University iCeMSFor the first time, a synthetic compound has been made that can bind to DNA in the cells' energy powerhouses, suppressing a gene associated with nerve and muscle disease.

Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PIPs) are compounds that can read specific DNA sequences inside living cells and silence disease-causing genes. They prevent proteins, called transcription factors, from binding to specific parts of the DNA strand, thus suppressing the transcription of DNA into RNA.Most DNA is found in the nucleus. But mitochondria, the cell's powerhouses, also host a small amount of DNA. PIPs are capable o

bacterial supermachine reveals streamlined protein assembly line

The bacterial expressome. In bacteria, the machine that reads DNA to turn it into a message and the machine that translates the message into protein are combined into single complex or "supermachine." In humans and other organisms, these machines are distinct. That bacteria link them has important implications for molecular biology, drug development and more. Credit: Robert LandickThere are many processes that take place in cells that are essential for life. Two of these, transcription and translation, allow the genetic information stored in DNA to be deciphered into the proteins that form all living things, from bacteria to humans to plants.
Scientists have known for half a century that these two processes are coupled in bacteria, but only now have they finally had a look at the structu

marriage of microscopy techniques reveals 3-d structure of critical protein comp

IMAGE: The Drosophila synaptonemal complex forms between homologous chromosomes as two distinct layers that mirror each other.
view more Credit: Illustration by Ryan Kramer.Kansas City, MO. - Researchers at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research have solved the three-dimensional structure of a complex that is essential for the correct sorting of chromosomes into eggs and sperm during reproductive cell division or meiosis.When this structure, called the synaptonemal complex, doesn't assemble properly in the cell, it can lead to chromosomal abnormalities, miscarriages, and birth defects.Since the synaptonemal complex was first discovered in 1956, researchers have been trying to identify its many moving parts and how they fit together. Their efforts have been limited by the laws of phys

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