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recent generations are experiencing higher rates of arthritis

In an analysis of the Canadian population born between the 1930s and 1960s, each succeeding generation had a higher prevalence of arthritis.The prevalence of arthritis increased over time especially in obese individuals. "Overall increases due to obesity were partially offset by concurrent increases in education, income, and smoking cessation," said Dr. Elizabeth Badley, lead author of the Arthritis Care & Research study.
###Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

tooth loss linked to an increased risk of dementia

In a study of 1566 community-dwelling Japanese elderly who were followed for 5 years, the risk of developing dementia was elevated in individuals with fewer remaining teeth. Individuals with 10-19, 1-9, and no teeth had 62%, 81%, and 63% higher risks of dementia, respectively, than individuals with >20 teeth. Likewise, an inverse association was observed between the number of remaining teeth and the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. "Our findings emphasize the clinical importance of dental care and treatment, especially in terms of maintenance of teeth from an early age for reducing the future risk of dementia," said Dr. Tomoyuki Ohara, co-author of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society study.
###Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news

hubble showcases a remarkable galactic hybrid

IMAGE: UGC 12591 lies just under 400 million light-years away from us in the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster.
view more Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASAThis NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image showcases the remarkable galaxy UGC 12591. UGC 12591 sits somewhere between a lenticular and a spiral. It lies just under 400 million light-years away from us in the westernmost region of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster, a long chain of galaxy clusters that stretches out for hundreds of light-years -- one of the largest known structures in the cosmos.The galaxy itself is also extraordinary: it is incredibly massive. The galaxy and its halo together contain several hundred billion times the mass of the sun; four times the mass of the Milky Way. It also whirls round extremely quickly, rotating at speeds of up

cancer-causing benzene found in e-cigarette vapors operated at high power

Portland State University scientists have found that significant levels of cancer-causing benzene in e-cigarette vapors can form when the devices are operated at high power. The finding by a research team headed by chemistry professor James F. Pankow were published March 8 in the online journal PLOS ONE. Benzene, a component of gasoline, has been linked to a number of diseases, including leukemia and bone marrow failure. It is found in urban air because of industrial emissions and unburned gasoline in exhaust and fuel tank leakages. It has been named the largest single cancer-risk ambient air toxin in the United States. The amount of benzene the PSU scientists measured from e-cigarettes depended greatly on the device. With one device operated at high power, and when the e-cigarette fluid a

newer medications can cure hcv infections

A new analysis reveals a dramatic transformation in the care of patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as more effective and tolerable medications have become available.In an analysis of all HCV antiviral treatment regimens (N=107,079) initiated from 1999 through 2015 in the US Veterans Affairs national healthcare system, cure rates increased steadily from 19.2% in 1999 to 36.0% in 2010 before a remarkable increase to 90.5% in 2015. The number of patients achieving sustained virologic response was 1313 in 2010, the last year of the interferon era and increased 5.6-fold to 7377 in 2014 and 21-fold to 28,084 in 2015."The introduction of effective direct antiviral agents together with the allocation of appropriate funds and resources allowed the VA healthcare system to treat and cure

the making of music | eurekalert! science news

These days, it's a territory mostly dominated by the likes of Raffi and the Wiggles, but there's new evidence that lullabies, play songs, and other music for babies and toddlers may have some deep evolutionary roots. A new theory paper, co-authored by Graduate School of Education doctoral student Samuel Mehr and Assistant Professor of Psychology Max Krasnow, proposes that infant-directed song evolved as a way for parents to signal to children that their needs are being met, while still freeing up parents to perform other tasks, like foraging for food, or caring for other offspring. Infant-directed song might later have evolved into the more complex forms of music we hear in our modern world. The theory is described in an open-access paper in the journal Evolution and Human Behavior. Music

3-d printing with plants | eurekalert! science news

CAMBRIDGE, Mass. -- For centuries, cellulose has formed the basis of the world's most abundantly printed-on material: paper. Now, thanks to new research at MIT, it may also become an abundant material to print with -- potentially providing a renewable, biodegradable alternative to the polymers currently used in 3-D printing materials."Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer in the world," says MIT postdoc Sebastian Pattinson, lead author of a paper describing the new system in the journal Advanced Materials Technologies. The paper is co-authored by associate professor of mechanical engineering A. John Hart, the Mitsui Career Development Professor in Contemporary Technology.Cellulose, Pattinson explains, is "the most important component in giving wood its mechanical properties. And b

lead dressed like gold | eurekalert! science news

IMAGE: Study co-authors from left to right: Renan Cabrera, Herschel Rabitz, Denys Bondar, and Andre Campos
view more Credit: C. Todd Reichart, Department of Chemistry at Princeton UniversitySince the Middle Ages, alchemists have sought to transmute elements, the most famous example being the long quest to turn lead into gold. Transmutation has been realized in modern times, but on a minute scale using a massive particle accelerator. Now, theorists at Princeton University have proposed a different approach to this ancient ambition -- just make one material behave like another. A computational theory published Feb. 24 in the journal Physical Review Letters demonstrates that any two systems can be made to look alike, even if just for the smallest fraction of a second.In this context, for tw

redefining 'species' | eurekalert! science news

IMAGE: Hybrids between Blue-winged and Golden-winged warblers -- sometimes called "Brewster's " warblers -- pose a challenge for ornithologists trying to agree on how to define species.
view more Credit: Lloyd SpitalnikWhat is a species? Biologists--and ornithologists in particular--have been debating the best definition for a very long time. A new commentary published in The Auk: Ornithological Advances proposes a novel concept: that species can be defined based on the unique coadaptations between their two genomes, one in the nuclei of their cells and the other in their mitochondria.All animals have two sets of genes, one in the cell nucleus and one in organelles called mitochondria, and these two sets of DNA work together to enable cellular respiration and energy production. If they'r

recovering predators and prey | eurekalert! science news

IMAGE: Predators increasingly are targeting young Steller sea lions, making their recovery difficult.
view more Credit: Courtesy of Alaska Sea Life CenterIf you build it, they will come. That's historically been a common approach to species recovery: Grow the prey population first and predators will quickly return. As it turns out, that's not quite the case. A new study has found that restoring predator and prey species simultaneously speeds the recovery efforts of both.Published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, the paper by a team of scientists that includes UC Santa Barbara researchers used models and case studies to examine the pace of species and ecosystem recovery efforts. They found that tandem recovery of predators and prey is almost always more efficient -- and on ave

use of opioid pain medications may affect liver transplant patients' survival

An analysis of nearly 30,000 patients undergoing liver transplantation in the United States between 2008 and 2014 found elevated death and organ loss rates in the first 5 years after transplantation among recipients with the highest use of opioid pain medications while on the waiting list.Higher risks mainly emerged after the first transplant anniversary, a pattern that may in part reflect sustained opioid use. Sixty five percent of those with the highest level of opioid use on the waiting list continued moderate to high level use in the first year after transplantation.The findings indicate that transplant candidates who require high levels of opioids should be carefully assessed and monitored before and after transplantation."Concerns for an epidemic of complications related to use of pr

materials that emit rainbows | eurekalert! science news

IMAGE: This is an illustrative summary of the developed organic luminescent material.
view more Credit: Youhei TakedaMechanochromic luminescent (MCL) materials change their color in response to a change in their environment, like pressure and temperature. To date, most MCL materials only change between two colors, limiting their applications. The international research team comprising of chemists at Osaka University and physicists at Durham University has developed tricolor-changing MLC materials. Not only that, the developed materials exhibited efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) and allowed high performance organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) devices. The findings can be read about in Chemical Science. "Most MCL materials generate two colors by switching between

biofuel produced by microalgae | eurekalert! science news

IMAGE: Left panel: Light microscopic image of Nannochloropsis. Lipid droplets look slightly bluish by light refraction.
Right panel: Fluorescence micrograph of that accumulated a large amount of oils. With...
view more Credit: Tokyo Institute of TechnologyIn the modern society, energy generation heavily relies on fossil fuels, which, however, lead to environmental pollution and depletion of non-renewable resources. Photosynthetic organisms such as plants and green algae can transform atmospheric carbon dioxide into carbon storage molecules, especially oils such as triacylglycerols (TAGs), which can be used as biofuels. In this context, microalgae provide advantages of high oil content and growth in extreme environments, including high salinity, temperature, or pH.Nannochloropsis (Figur

pregnancy-specific β1-glycoproteins | eurekalert! science news

Development of new strategies and novel drug design to treat trophoblastic diseases and to provide pregnancy success are of crucial importance in maintenance the female reproductive health. Pregnancy specific β1-glycoproteins (PSGs) have long been recognized as trophoblast quality and embryo viability markers. This review article summarizes and discusses advances in 45-year studies on biological roles of PSGs, and structure/function relationships to other fetoplacental proteins as well as implications for drug design with focus on the latest achievements and the challenges for future investigations. PSGs were first discovered with the use of immunochemical methods by Russian scientists Yuri Tatarinov and Vitaliy Masyukevich in the blood serum of pregnant women as early as in 1970. Later, t

sound-shaping super-material invented | eurekalert! science news

A super-material that bends, shapes and focuses sound waves that pass through it has been invented by scientists.The creation pushes the boundaries of metamaterials - a new class of finely-engineered surfaces that perform nature-defying tasks.These materials have already shown remarkable results with light manipulation, allowing scientists to create a real-life version of Harry Potter's invisibility cloak, for example.But a research team from the Universities of Sussex and Bristol have now shown that they also work with sound waves, which could transform medical imaging and personal audio.Finely shaped sound fields are used in medical imaging and therapy as well as in a wide range of consumer products such as audio spotlights and ultrasonic haptics. The research published today (date) in N

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