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 key protein in sperm tail assembly identified
key protein in sperm tail assembly identified

A study published in the Journal of Cell Biology focuses on the development of the sperm tail, the structure that enables sperm cells to swim and is therefore critical for male fertility.

key protein in sperm tail assembly identified

IMAGE: Top: Normal Drosophila melanogaster spermatozoa. Orange shows heads and green shows tails. Bottom: Mutant Drosophila melanogaster spermatozoa. The heads are severed from the tail ends and are dispersed....
view more Credit: Photo courtesy of S. Llamazares / Gonzalez LabThe group led by ICREA Research Professor Cayetano Gonzalez at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), in collaboration with Giuliano Callaini's team at the University of Siena in Italy, has published a study in The Journal of Cell Biology that identifies the critical role played by a protein called CENTROBIN in sperm tail development.In flies, as in humans, the sperm cell (spermatozoon) is made up of the cell body proper, also referred to as the sperm "head", and the flagellum. The flagellum, als

key protein in sperm tail assembly identified

Top: Normal Drosophila melanogaster spermatozoa. Orange shows heads and green shows tails. Bottom: Mutant Drosophila melanogaster spermatozoids. The heads are severed from the tail ends and are dispersed. Photo courtesy of S. Llamazares / Gonzalez LabA study published in the Journal of Cell Biology focuses on the development of the sperm tail, the structure that enables sperm cells to swim and is therefore critical for male fertility.
The group led by ICREA Research Professor Cayetano Gonzalez at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), in collaboration with Giuliano Callaini's team at the University of Siena in Italy, has published a study in the Journal of Cell Biology that identifies the critical role played by a protein called CENTROBIN in spermtail development.In f

single protein controls genetic network essential for sperm development

Scientists have found a single protein—Ptbp2—controls a network of over 200 genes central to how developing sperm move and communicate. The protein works by regulating how RNA is processed during each stage of sperm development.

new structure discovered in human sperm tails

IMAGE: This is a picture of Johanna Höög working.
view more Credit: Malin ArnessonHuman sperms are incredibly important for our reproduction. It would therefore be easy to assume that we have detailed knowledge of their appearance. However, an international team of researchers has now identified a completely new nanostructure inside sperm tails, thanks to the use of cryo-electron tomography.The method, for which Joachim Frank, Jacques Dubochet and Richard Henderson were awarded a Nobel Prize in 2017, produces 3D images of cellular structures."Since the cells are depicted frozen in ice, without the addition of chemicals which can obscure the smallest cell structures, even individual proteins inside the cell can be observed" explains Johanna Höög, a research at the University of Gothenburg

single protein controls genetic network essential for sperm development

Scientists have found a single protein—Ptbp2—controls a network of over 200 genes central to how developing sperm move and communicate. The protein works by regulating how RNA is processed during each stage of sperm development.

The study is published in Cell Reports by Donny Licatalosi, PhD, Assistant Professor in the Center for RNA Science and Therapeutics at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine.Developing sperm are constantly chopping and trimming their genetic material. This process—"splicing"—allows the cells to select genes required for each developmental stage. Splicing produces small, trimmed pieces of RNA that serve as protein blueprints. By using different trimming patterns—"alternative splicing"—the cells can create multiple protein blueprints from a single ge

single protein controls genetic network essential for sperm development

Bottom Line: Scientists have found a single protein--Ptbp2--controls a network of over 200 genes central to how developing sperm move and communicate. The protein works by regulating how RNA is processed during each stage of sperm development.Journal in Which the Study was Published: Cell ReportsAuthor: Donny Licatalosi, PhD, Assistant Professor in the Center for RNA Science and Therapeutics at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine.Background: Developing sperm are constantly chopping and trimming their genetic material. This process--"splicing"--allows the cells to select genes required for each developmental stage. Splicing produces small, trimmed pieces of RNA that serve as protein blueprints. By using different trimming patterns--"alternative splicing"--the cells can create

last unknown structure of hiv-1 solved, another step in efforts to disarm the ai

The structures of three membrane-associated cytoplasmic tails of gp41 are shown in red and orange, from this illustration of the trimeric spike structure. The rest of this HIV-1 envelope protein, which is docked on a gray membrane, are the structures of gp120 and gp41, shown in green, and the transmembrane segment, shown in blue. Credit: Jamil SaadA University of Alabama at Birmingham team led by Jamil Saad, Ph.D., has solved the last unknown protein structure of HIV-1, the retrovirus that can cause AIDS.
Knowledge of this structure, called the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 protein, will help researchers further understand how the virus infects human cells and how progeny viruses are assembled and released from infected cells. The cytoplasmic tail appears to play a key role in virus assembly

dead sperm whale washes up on zeeland beach, first in 47 years

Photo: Evert van Moort/ Hollandse HoogteA dead 13.5 metre long sperm whale has washed up on a beach in Domburg in the south of the country.The whale, a male, has some injuries to its tail but is otherwise in good condition and experts are on hand to try to determine the cause of death.‘It certainly got lost,’Jaap van der Hiele of the Dutch sea mammal rescue association said. ‘It should be in the northern Arctic sea.’The last time a dead sperm whale washed up in Zeeland was 47 years ago. At the beginning of this year, two live whales were spotted swimming near the mouth of the Westerschelde estuary and they were successfully led back out to the open sea.

researchers study synthetic protein cages

A multidisciplinary team of mathematicians, theoretical physicists, chemists and biochemists from the University of Bristol came together to study the self-assembly of protein building into protein cages with possible applications in nanotechnology and synthetic biology.

toward lab-grown designer babies

It gives new meaning to the vulgarity "a piece of tail." The latest way of divorcing baby-making from the old-fashioned method not only involves no sexual relations, it doesn't even involve eggs and sperm. At least at first.

dutch sperm donor fathers at least 102 children: rtl

A sperm donor in the Netherlands has been caught donating sperm to 11 different fertility clinics and has fathered at least 102 children, RTL news said on Saturday.In the Netherlands, sperm donors many not father more than 25 children and are supposed only to donate at one clinic. In a second case highlighted by RTL, a man has fathered two children at two different clinics.The Dutch gynecologists association NVOG has called on clinics to stop using the men’s sperm immediately. There indications the men had very recently offered their services to various clinics and that some women are currently being impregnated using their sperm, the organisation said.The men have also been donated sperm to would-be mothers outside the regular health service, RTL said.The NVOG found about the multiple don

dutch sperm donor fathers at least 102 children: rtl

A sperm donor in the Netherlands has been caught donating sperm to 11 different fertility clinics and has fathered at least 102 children, RTL news said on Saturday.In the Netherlands, sperm donors many not father more than 25 children and are supposed only to donate at one clinic. In a second case highlighted by RTL, a man has fathered two children at two different clinics.The Dutch gynecologists association NVOG has called on clinics to stop using the men’s sperm immediately. There indications the men had very recently offered their services to various clinics and that some women are currently being impregnated using their sperm, the organisation said.The men have also been donated sperm to would-be mothers outside the regular health service, RTL said.The NVOG found about the multiple don

sex-linked supergene controls sperm size, shape and swimming speed in birds

Credit: University of SheffieldThe size and swimming speed of sperm are controlled by a single supergene in birds, according to a new study by the University of Sheffield.
Sperm competition is an important selective force in many organisms but the relationship between sperm shape, its ability to move and successful fertilisation is only partly understood.Previous studies have shown that sperm shape and speed are inherited; fathers with long, fast sperm have sons with long, fast sperm. However, it was not known which genes were responsible for sperm characteristics being passed from one generation to the next.In a new study, published today in Nature Ecology and Evolution, researchers at the University of Sheffield have used zebra finches as a model system to unravel the genetics of sperm

dual role of fruit fly protein in connecting chromosome copies

Nagoya University researchers identified combined function for Drosophila protein in launching and maintaining a process enabling chromatids to pair during DNA replication.

researchers use sperm to deliver cancer drugs to tumors

Sperm offer quite a lot of benefits when it comes to delivering drugs. They're naturally mobile, they can encase the drug so that it doesn't get diluted by body fluids or leak out and they protect the drug from enzymes that can break them down. They also don't cause immune responses like other other cell types -- bacteria, for example -- and they don't duplicate and form unwanted colonies.The researchers first showed that just soaking sperm in a drug, in this case a cancer treatment called doxorubicin, will allow sperm to take that drug up and store it inside of themselves. And when those drug-loaded sperm were turned on a type of experimental tumor, they caused a nearly 90 percent reduction in living cancer cells after just 72 hours. Further, the researchers attached tiny, iron-coated hat

scientists found sperm’s power switch—and a way to turn it off

Sperm need calcium ions to drill into an egg and fertilize it. Compounds that muck up ion transport could create a new class of male birth control. The post Scientists Found Sperm’s Power Switch—And a Way to Turn It Off appeared first on WIRED.

protein synthesis machinery from bacterial consortia in one shot

A new technique developed at UC Davis may have broken the barrier to rapid assembly of pure protein synthesis machinery outside of living cells.

researchers discover mitochondria-to-nucleus messenger protein

Researchers have identified a protein, G-Protein Pathway Suppressor 2 (GPS2), that moves from a cell's mitochondria to its nucleus in response to stress and during the differentiation of fat cells. While proteins with similar functions had previously been found in yeast and worms, this is first direct messenger discovered in the cells of mammals.

prospective birth control pill for men has its origin in an arrow poison

Women have many options for oral contraceptives that are safe, effective and reversible, but despite decades of research, men have none. Now, scientists report a rat study in ACS' Journal of Medicinal Chemistry that shows they finally have a good lead for a male birth control pill. It's based on ouabain, a plant extract that African warriors and hunters traditionally used as a heart-stopping poison on their arrows.
 
Two types of African plants make ouabain. Mammals also produce it in their bodies, though at lower levels that are thought to help control blood pressure; doctors sometimes prescribe small doses of the compound to treat heart attack patients. Ouabain disrupts the passage of sodium and calcium ions through the membrane protein Na,K-ATPases, which are are found in cell membran

fruit fly protein dual duties may make it model for studies of protein function

Clamp (glowing green) is found all over these fly chromosomes, but it's particularly concentrated at the histone locus (red) at the bottom center. Credit: Rieder, et. al.An essential fruit fly protein called CLAMP may help biologists answer the key question of how the same protein can manage to coordinate two completely different processes on distinct chromosomes in the same cell.
New research on a crucial protein in fruit flies provides a clear model for a fundamental question in biology that's significant for drug development in particular: What influences the exact same protein to coordinate a vital molecular process on one chromosome but an entirely different one on another chromosome?The new study concerns the recently discovered protein CLAMP. Previously, scientists at Brown Univer

study examines sperm production in men with testicular cancer

In a study of men with testicular cancer, increasing tumor size relative to testis size was linked with a reduced ability to produce sperm. The BJU International study's findings can be summarized into the rule of 50s: men with a testis tumor occupying greater than 50% of their testis have less than a 50% chance of sperm production in their affected testis. The study included 103 men with testicular cancer. Sperm production was present in 70% of the patients. Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in young men in their peak fertile years."Up to 24% of men presenting with testicular cancer have no sperm in their ejaculate at diagnosis, and the treatment can cause further insult to sperm production," said lead author Jemma Moody from the study research team in the Andrology Departme

longer-lived sperm produce healthier offspring

Human sperm stained for semen quality testing in the clinical laboratory. Credit: Bobjgalindo/WikipediaMales produce hundreds of thousands to hundreds of millions of sperm within a single ejaculate depending on the species. Does it matter then which sperm is actually fertilising the egg?

Research published today shows that selecting for longer-lived sperm within the ejaculate of a male results in offspring with better survival prospects early in life and higher quality as adults.The study by the University of East Anglia, UK and Uppsala University, Sweden, could have major implications for adaptive evolution and research into assisted fertilisation technologies, such as IVF.Until now it has been assumed that in animals, fertile sperm within a single ejaculate are all equally capable o

researcher finds that when sperm compete, eggs have a choice

The delicately mannered dance between discerning eggs and vying sperm is more complicated than scientists once believed, and it may hold secrets about the evolution of new species.

newfound protein may prevent viral infection and herpes-induced cancer

Keck School of Medicine of USC researchers have identified a human protein that could prevent cancer by restricting a type of herpes virus from replicating.

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