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 lung organoids
new lung 'organoids' in a dish mimic features of full-size lung

New York, NY (May 12, 2017)--New lung "organoids"--tiny 3-D structures that mimic features of a full-sized lung--have been created from human pluripotent stem cells by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC). The team used the organoids to generate models of human lung diseases in a lab dish, which could be used to advance our understanding of a variety of respiratory diseases.A paper detailing the discovery was published in the April 24 online issue of Nature Cell Biology.Organoids are 3-D structures containing multiple cell types that look and function like a full-sized organ. By reproducing an organ in a dish, researchers hope to develop better models of human diseases, and find new ways of testing drugs and regenerating damaged tissue."Researchers have taken up the cha

new lung 'organoids' in a dish mimic features of full-size lung

Bright-field images of day 50 LBO-derived Matrigel colonies from RUES2 cells. Representative of six independent experiments. Scale bars, 500?μm. Credit: Snoeck lab/Columbia University Medical CenterNew lung "organoids"—tiny 3-D structures that mimic features of a full-sized lung—have been created from human pluripotent stem cells by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC). The team used the organoids to generate models of human lung diseases in a lab dish, which could be used to advance our understanding of a variety of respiratory diseases.
A paper detailing the discovery was published in the April 24 online issue of Nature Cell Biology.Organoids are 3-D structures containing multiple cell types that look and function like a full-sized organ. By reproducing an organ in

“brains in a dish” move out of science fiction and into the lab

Share this storySmall cultures of human neuronal cells developing in a dish are not quite “brains in a petri dish” as they are sometimes described. But these cerebral organoids give scientists unprecedented options for studying and understanding the early embryonic stages of human brain development. Two recent papers published in Nature show just how powerful these neuroscience research tools are. The first paper characterizes these neural developments more fully, while the second uses organoids as a tool to show how a neurodevelopmental disorder known as Timothy Syndrome develops.Making a brain-like thingThe first paper focused on fully understanding brain organoids, which start out as a cluster of neural stem cells. The authors of the paper describe them as cell systems that build themse

scientists create most sophisticated human liver model yet

WINSTON-SALEM, NC, Feb.13, 2018 - Scientists at Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) have developed the most sophisticated mini-livers to date. These organoids can potentially help scientists better understand certain congenital liver diseases as well as speed up efforts to create liver tissue in the lab for transplantation into patients."This model better mimics fetal development and function of the human liver," said Shay Soker, Ph.D., professor of regenerative medicine at WFIRM, which is part of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center. "We expect these organoids to advance our understanding of how liver diseases - especially congenital diseases -- start and progress so improved treatments can be developed."Soker was lead researcher on the study, which is reported in Hepato

patient-derived organoids may help personalize the treatment of gastrointestinal

A new BJS (British Journal of Surgery) review highlights the potential of 3D organoid models derived from patient cells to help personalize therapy for individuals with gastrointestinal cancers.Organoids--artificially grown masses of cells or tissues that resemble organs--are being used by researchers in a range of biomedical fields as they study various disease states and work to develop potential treatments. Organoid culture methods have been established for healthy and diseased tissues from oesophagus, stomach, intestine, pancreas, bile duct, and liver. Because organoids can be generated with high efficiency and speed from patient samples, they can serve as a personal cancer model that can guide clinical decision-making."Research using organoids has already unraveled so many of the unde

using organoids to understand how the brain wrinkles

A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature Physics, the team describes how they used a modified form of organoid development to study the development of brain wrinkles. Larry Taber with Washington University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue.

organoids created from patients' bladder cancers could guide treatment

IMAGE: Organoids created from the bladder cancers of patients mimic the characteristics of each patient's tumor and may be used in the future to identify the best treatment for each...
view more Credit: Columbia University Irving Medical CenterNEW YORK, NY (April 5, 2018)-Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) and NewYork-Presbyterian researchers have created patient-specific bladder cancer organoids that mimic many of the characteristics of actual tumors. The use of organoids, tiny 3-D spheres derived from a patient's own tumor, may be useful in the future to guide treatment of patients. The study was published today in the online edition of Cell.In precision medicine, molecular profiling of an individual patient's tumor is used to identify genetic mutations that drive that i

a closer look at brain organoid development

Heidelberg, 10 March 2017 - How close to reality are brain organoids, and which molecular mechanisms underlie the remarkable self-organizing capacities of tissues? Researchers already have succeeded in growing so-called "cerebral organoids" in a dish - clusters of cells that self-organize into small brain-like structures. Juergen Knoblich and colleagues have now further characterized these organoids and publish their results today in The EMBO Journal. They demonstrate that, like in the human brain, so-called forebrain organizing centers orchestrate developmental processes in the organoid, and that organoids recapitulate the timing of neuronal differentiation events found in human brains.The development of the human brain from just a few cells to a thinking organ is one of the great mysteri

true to type: from human biopsy to complex gut physiology on a chip

The small intestine is the main site where we digest and absorb nutrients and minerals from food, and it is also a place where many intestinal infections occur and digestive and inflammatory disorders manifest themselves. To better understand the intestine in its normal and pathological states, researchers have created "organoids" by isolating intestinal stem cells from human biopsy samples. These organoids form all of the cell types present in human intestine, but they grow as cysts surrounded by thick extracellular matrix gels with their "apical" cell surface (which is normally exposed to the content of the gut) facing an enclosed lumen. This prevents the study of dynamic processes involving the intestinal barrier, including nutrient and drug transport, as well as its interactions with t

irish sun - have you seen the coughing billboard on macken street yet

The lung cancer awareness billboard was launched by the Marie Keating Foundation The billboard coincides with International Lung Cancer Awareness MonthThe billboard highlights how the dangers of a persistent coughDUBLIN, Ireland - Marking the International Lung Cancer Awareness Month, the Marie Keating Foundation has placed an interactive billboard on Macken Street - which is meant to turn heads.The billboard coughs at people as they walk by and raises awareness about lung cancer, which is the biggest cancer killer worldwide.The new ‘Listen to your Lungs' billboard highlights how a persistent cough which lasts for more than three weeks could be a sign of cancer.Dr Anne Marie Baird, lung cancer researcher and patient advocate at St James Hospital and at Trinity College Dublin said, “I am de

scores of queenslanders likely died of black lung

Scores of Queenslanders have likely died of black lung without being diagnosed, a US lung disease expert says.And people outside the coal mining industry, such as those working on Brisbane's tunnel projects or in agriculture, could also be at risk.
There could still be black lung cases yet to be diagnosed. Photo: Supplied imageRobert Cohen, director of Occupational Lung Disease from Northwestern University in the US, agreed many Queenslanders could have gone to their grave as a result of black lung, without being diagnosed."If physicians in the communities believe that this disease was eradicated, and somebody dies of a respiratory death, they wouldn't likely certify that or think about black lung as a part of that," he said.
The shipping containers used to store chest X-rays of thousa

largest genome-wide study of lung cancer susceptibility identifies new causes

Using the OncoArray genotyping platform developed by multiple cancer consortia, a recent large aggregated genomewide association study identifies new susceptibility loci for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Although tobacco smoking is the main risk factor, past studies have shown heritability of lung cancer estimated at 18%. Previous genomewide association studies have identified several lung cancer susceptibility loci but most of its heritability remains unexplained. This study undertook additional genotyping of lung cancer cases and controls.The study was co-led by Christopher Amos, PhD, interim Director and Associate Director for Population Sciences, Norris Cotton Cancer Center; James McKay, PhD, International Agency for Research on Cancer; and Rayjean Hung,

lung cancer may go undetected in kidney cancer patients

IMAGE: (L to R): Dr. James Brugarolas, Dr. Isaac Bowman, Dr. Ivan Pedrosa, and Dr. Payal Kapur studied lung cancer tumors in kidney cancer patients.
view more Credit: UT SouthwesternDALLAS - March 7, 2017 - Could lung cancer be hiding in kidney cancer patients? Researchers with the Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center's Kidney Cancer Program studied patients with metastatic kidney cancer to the lungs and found that 3.5 percent of the group had a primary lung cancer tumor that had gone undiagnosed. This distinction can affect treatment choices and rates of survival."Kidney cancer spreads primarily to the lungs making the detection of a primary lung cancer difficult. Lung cancer is typically more aggressive than kidney cancer. Undetected, lung cancer may spread and eventually kill

'black lung' report fails to answer critical questions

Since late 2015, when the first case of Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis (CWP) – commonly called "Black Lung" – was diagnosed the threat of this disease has cast a pall over Queensland's coal industry.In this context it would be nice to advise that the latest official report – that by the Queensland Parliamentary Select Committee Inquiry into Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis, Black Lung, White Lies – would provide clarity as to the nature of the disease, its extent and its causes.
Records dating back to the 1980s will be examined. Photo: Glenn HuntSadly, it does none of these things.Before we discuss the failings of the Black Lung, White Lies report we need to first clarify what is "black lung". Contrary to what you would tend to believe from many of the quotes in the report, the coughing up of bl

'black lung' report fails to answer critical questions

Since late 2015, when the first case of Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis (CWP) – commonly called "Black Lung" – was diagnosed the threat of this disease has cast a pall over Queensland's coal industry.In this context it would be nice to advise that the latest official report – that by the Queensland Parliamentary Select Committee Inquiry into Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis, Black Lung, White Lies – would provide clarity as to the nature of the disease, its extent and its causes.
Records dating back to the 1980s will be examined. Photo: Glenn HuntSadly, it does none of these things.Before we discuss the failings of the Black Lung, White Lies report we need to first clarify what is "black lung". Contrary to what you would tend to believe from many of the quotes in the Report, the coughing up of bl

'black lung' report fails to answer critical questions

Since late 2015, when the first case of Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis (CWP) – commonly called "Black Lung" – was diagnosed the threat of this disease has cast a pall over Queensland's coal industry.In this context it would be nice to advise that the latest official report – that by the Queensland Parliamentary Select Committee Inquiry into Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis, Black Lung, White Lies – would provide clarity as to the nature of the disease, its extent and its causes.
Records dating back to the 1980s will be examined. Photo: Glenn HuntSadly, it does none of these things.Before we discuss the failings of the Black Lung, White Lies report we need to first clarify what is "black lung". Contrary to what you would tend to believe from many of the quotes in the report, the coughing up of bl

better mini brains could help scientists identify treatments for zika-related br

IMAGE: These are organoids before (left) and after exposure to Zika (center), and after treatment (right).
view more Credit: UCLA Broad Stem Cell Research Center/Cell ReportsUCLA researchers have developed an improved technique for creating simplified human brain tissue from stem cells. Because these so-called "mini brain organoids" mimic human brains in how they grow and develop, they're vital to studying complex neurological diseases.In a study published in the journal Cell Reports, the researchers used the organoids to better understand how Zika infects and damages fetal brain tissue, which enabled them to identify drugs that could prevent the virus's damaging effects.The research, led by senior author Ben Novitch, could lead to new ways to study human neurological and neurodevelopmen

nano-sized drug carriers could be the future for patients with lung disease

Metallic nanomolecules capable of carrying drugs to exactly where they are needed could one day help to treat patients with a fatal lung condition.

how to tell if you should get screened for lung cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among men and women, partly because the disease is often diagnosed too late to treat effectively. The American Lung Association wants to change that, by encouraging people who are at high risk of lung cancer to talk to their doctor about a potentially lifesaving screening procedure.On a website launched this month, people can take a short quiz to determine whether they fall under the recommended guidelines for screening. In general, people are considered at high risk for lung cancer—and should talk to their doctor about getting screened—if they meet all the following criteria:They are between 55 and 80 years old (or between 55 and 77 if on Medicare)They have a 30 pack-year history of smoking—which means that the number of packs they’ve smoke

two studies explore gender, language, and treatment setting as barriers in scree

TORONTO (October 23, 2017) -More people die of lung cancer than any other type of cancer, and two new studies from CHEST 2017 reveal disparities in lung cancer screening and care that may impact detection, as well as mortality and survival rates in the disease.The first study from LaheyHospital and Medical Center in Burlington, Massachusetts, reviewed the Lahey lung cancer screening database for several characteristics, including smoking status, personal cancer history, lung cancer screening status, and time from initial contact to screening. Data were analyzed on patients who met either National Lung Screening Trial or National Comprehensive Cancer Network high-risk criteria, from January 2012 to March 2017.They concluded that in the institution's lung cancer screening program, more femal

scientists identify 170 potential lung cancer drug targets using unique cellular

IMAGE: From left, Dr. Bruce Posner, Dr. Michael Roth, Dr. Michael Peyton, and Dr. John Minna were part of the team scientists who identified 170 chemicals for potential new targets to...
view more Credit: UT Southwestern Medical CenterDALLAS - April 19, 2018 - After testing more than 200,000 chemical compounds, UT Southwestern's Simmons Cancer Center researchers have identified 170 chemicals that are potential candidates for development into drug therapies for lung cancer.The 5-year project set out to identify new therapeutic targets for non-small cell lung cancer as well as potential drugs for these targets - a significant step forward toward personalizing cancer care."For the large majority of compounds, we identified a predictive biomarker - a feature that allows the development of 'p

lego-like brain balls could build a living replica of your noggin

The human brain is routinely described as the most complex object in the known universe. It might therefore seem unlikely that pea-size blobs of brain cells growing in laboratory dishes could be more than fleetingly useful to neuroscientists. Nevertheless, many investigators are now excitedly cultivating these curious biological systems, formally called cerebral organoids and less formally known as mini-brains. With organoids, researchers can run experiments on how living human brains develop—experiments that would be impossible (or unthinkable) with the real thing.Quanta MagazineAboutOriginal story reprinted with permission from Quanta Magazine, an editorially independent publication of the Simons Foundation whose mission is to enhance public understanding of science by covering research

rise in lung adenocarcinoma linked to 'light' cigarette use

COLUMBUS, Ohio -- A new study shows that so-called "light" cigarettes have no health benefits to smokers and have likely contributed to the rise of a certain form of lung cancer that occurs deep in the lungs. For this new study, researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James) and five other universities/cancer centers examined why the most common type of lung cancer, called adenocarcinoma, has increased over the last 50 years, rather than decreasing as smokers have been able to quit. Other types of lung cancer have been decreasing in relationship to fewer people smoking, but not lung adenocarcinoma. Because of this, lung adenocarcinoma is now the most common type of lung cancer.

mathematical modeling could help with personalized cancer care

A new study from the University of Southern California could pave the way for improving personalised lung cancer care and treatment.
The research used mathematical modelling to examine if there was a link between the molecular and anatomical properties of lung cancer metastases, and whether this has an influence on how they spread through the body.The team's findings, published today in the journal Convergent Science Physical Oncology, show a pattern in some patients with non-small cell lung cancer who develop lung metastases, which then in turn spread to the brain.Tumour spread in lung cancer typically involves the opposite lung, as well as the liver, bone, brain and lymph nodes. This is a seemingly random process, which has not yet been well quantified.However, lung cancer is not primar

mini brains just got creepier—they’re growing their own veins

The first human brain balls—aka cortical spheroids, aka neural organoids—agglomerated into existence just a few short years ago. In the beginning, they were almost comically crude: just stem cells, chemically coerced into proto-neurons and then swirled into blobs in a salty-sweet bath. But still, they were useful for studying some of the most dramatic brain disorders, like the microcephaly caused by the Zika virus.Then they started growing up. The simple spheres matured into 3D structures, fusing with other types of brain balls and sparking with electricity. The more like real brains they became, the more useful they were for studying complex behaviors and neurological diseases beyond the reach of animal models. And now, in their most human act yet, they’re starting to bleed.Neural organoi

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