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 unexpected regulation of transcription factors critical to development
unexpected regulation of transcription factors critical to development

A team of developmental biologists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst led by Dominique Alfandari, with others at MIT, report in a new paper that they have for the first time described how two transcription factors that are "absolutely essential for human development" are regulated by a cell surface metalloprotease known as ADAM13. The discovery adds to knowledge of how cells migrate in vertebrate embryos, how stem cells differentiate and how cancer cells metastasize.

rattling dna hustles transcribers to targets

Imagine if a dense thicket didn't obstruct your path but instead picked you up and shuttled you through the forest. That's what tightly packed DNA might be doing with important life molecules to get them where they're needed on time.New simulations of DNA as a transport conduit could shatter the way scientists have thought about how large molecules called transcription factors diffuse on their way to carry out genetic missions, according to a study by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The simulations add important brush strokes to our picture of elusive inner mechanics of cells.The simulations strongly support the hypothesis that, in a live cell, DNA is in constant motion, making it the dominant mover of transcription factors, to their target sites on DNA. There, the fact

visualization of transcription initiation at single-molecule resolution

A novel approach developed at the Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research (FMI) has allowed scientists in Dirk Schübeler's group to dissect and quantify the individual steps of transcription initiation. Unexpectedly, they observed that RNA polymerases frequently dissociate from the DNA template, rather than pause, before transcription continues. They thus gained new mechanistic insights into gene regulation.

rattling dna hustles transcribers to targets

Naturally occurring DNA is in constant motion, researchers hypothesize, and transports large transcription factors (depicted in green) through its tangles until they reach sites where they bind and carry out their activity. Here a still image from a very large, unique simulation. Credit: Georgia Tech / Edmond Chow / Jeff SkolnickImagine if a dense thicket didn't obstruct your path but instead picked you up and shuttled you through the forest. That's what tightly packed DNA might be doing with important life molecules to get them where they're needed on time.
New simulations of DNA as a transport conduit could shatter the way scientists have thought about how large molecules called transcription factors diffuse on their way to carry out genetic missions, according to a study by researcher

family factors may influence a child's temperament

A new study indicates that a child's temperament may be influenced by maternal postpartum depression, maternal sensitivity, and family functioning. Maternal depression was associated with difficult temperaments in infants when maternal sensitivity was low, but not when maternal sensitivity was high. Family functioning similarly moderated these links.The findings suggest that family factors play a critical role in shaping the trajectory of an infant's behavioral style as it unfolds over development. For example, even when dealing with depression, mothers who consistently and appropriately respond to their infants' needs, which are hallmarks of sensitive parenting, may more effectively teach their infants how to regulate their negative emotions than mothers who respond less sensitively. Simi

researchers show how a cancer gene protects genome organization

CHAPEL HILL, NC - UNC School of Medicine researchers have cracked a long-standing mystery about an important enzyme found in virtually all organisms other than bacteria. The basic science finding may have implications for understanding cancer development and how to halt it.Researchers have known that the enzyme Set2 is important for transcribing genes - the process of making strands of RNA from the DNA. Transcription is critical for making proteins and other functional molecules. But Set2's precise role in transcription hasn't been clear. Now, UNC scientists discovered that the enzyme is particularly important for keeping transcription working properly when cells are under stress. Without Set2, cells that become stressed through the lack of nutrients begin mis-transcribing genes in a way t

pause to read the traffic sign: regulation of dna transcription in bacteria

The survival of the cell is—apart from other important aspects—a question of timing: Scientists of Goethe University together with colleagues from other universities have now identified the different parts of this mechanism and introduced a model of the process.

genes and the environment? factors, patterns that lead to childhood obesity risk

URBANA, Ill. - In the preschool years, children begin to learn from their environment about self-regulation--both in regards to food choices and how to deal with their emotions. When children don't learn effective self-regulation skills during those early critical years, studies have shown they may be at a greater risk of becoming obese. One factor that has been linked to childhood obesity is restrictive feeding practices by primary caregivers, the implication being that it may interfere with a child's ability to learn to self-regulate food intake. Not surprisingly, when a child is overweight, parents tend to use more controlling, restrictive feeding practices, and parent-child communication about weight and restrictive feeding is often negative, another factor that increases obesity risk.

newly identified method of gene regulation challenges accepted science, research

Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have discovered an unexpected layer of the regulation of gene expression. The finding will likely disrupt scientists' understanding of how cells regulate their genes to develop, communicate and carry out specific tasks throughout the body.

crystal structure reveals new details of nonstandard rna transcription

IMAGE: Schematic of alternative pathways for transcription elongation complex formation. During canonical transcription (left) the growing strand of RNA extends toward the RNA exit channel of RNA polymerase. New, high-resolution crystal...
view more Credit: Murakami laboratory, Penn State UniversityOut through the window: Crystal structure reveals details of nonstandard RNA transcriptionUniversity Park, PA -- High-resolution crystal structure reveals a new pathway for RNA during a nontraditional form of transcription -- the process by which RNA is produced from a DNA template. Caught during the act of reiterative transcription, a form of transcription in which a single base of DNA (represented by the letters A, T, C, and G) codes for several corresponding bases in the RNA (one G in DNA l

preeclampsia triggered by an overdose of gene activity

Preeclampsia is the most dangerous form of hypertension during a pregnancy and can be fatal for both mother and child. Though it is known to originate in the placenta, the root causes remain largely a mystery. An international research team led by the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) has recently published new findings in the scientific journal Circulation, which reveal that preeclampsia is not in fact a single disease caused solely by genetic factors. Their tests on placenta samples have shown that epigenetically regulated genes play an important role. The Berlin research team also developed an in vitro model of the disorder which demonstrates the dysregulation of an important transcription factor.The research team compared placental tissue samples and the genetic makeup o

accessing dna in the cell's powerhouse to treat disease

A schematic illustration of a mitochondria-specific DNA-based synthetic ligand, called MITO-PIPs that selectively read a target DNA sequence and alter gene transcription. Credit: Kyoto University iCeMSFor the first time, a synthetic compound has been made that can bind to DNA in the cells' energy powerhouses, suppressing a gene associated with nerve and muscle disease.

Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PIPs) are compounds that can read specific DNA sequences inside living cells and silence disease-causing genes. They prevent proteins, called transcription factors, from binding to specific parts of the DNA strand, thus suppressing the transcription of DNA into RNA.Most DNA is found in the nucleus. But mitochondria, the cell's powerhouses, also host a small amount of DNA. PIPs are capable o

accessing dna in the cell's powerhouse to treat disease

IMAGE: This is a schematic illustration of a mitochondria-specific DNA-based synthetic ligand, called MITO-PIPs that selectively read a target DNA sequence and alter gene transcription.
view more Credit: Kyoto University iCeMSFor the first time, a synthetic compound has been made that can bind to DNA in the cells' energy powerhouses, suppressing a gene associated with nerve and muscle disease.Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PIPs) are compounds that can read specific DNA sequences inside living cells and silence disease-causing genes. They prevent proteins, called transcription factors, from binding to specific parts of the DNA strand, thus suppressing the transcription of DNA into RNA. Most DNA is found in the nucleus. But mitochondria, the cell's powerhouses, also host a small amount of D

pre-synaptic cadherin/catenin complexes stablize post-synaptic spines in vivo

IMAGE: Figure: This image depicts the ornamental braiding (Pan Kou) for fastening the front of traditional Chinese clothing in watercolor, as an analogy of how cadherin/catenin complexes regulate the synapse maturation...
view more Credit: Image by Dr. LI YefeiSynapses are fundamental building blocks of neural circuits. Synapse formation requires complex regulation involving cell adhesion molecules, secreted molecules, transcription factors and so forth. For cell adhesion molecules, a critical unanswered question is whether pre- and post-synaptic partners contribute equally to synaptogenesis, or whether one side is predominant in inducing functional synapse formation and in stabilizing nascent synapses. A recent study conducted by Dr. YU Xiang's lab at the Institute of Neuroscience of th

real estate act comes into force today

The much-awaited Real Estate Act comes into force on Monday. However, only 13 states and Union Territories have so far notified rules under the Act which, Union Minister Venkaiah Naidu said, will enable only regulation of the sector and not “strangulation”.The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act promises to bring in the much-desired transparency, accountability and efficiency in real estate sector and the government has described the implementation of the Act as the beginning of an era where the consumer is king.The government has brought in the legislation to protect home buyers and encourage genuine private players. The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Bill, 2016 was passed by Parliament in March 2016 and all the 92 sections of the Act come into effect from May 1.However

bacterial supermachine reveals streamlined protein assembly line

The bacterial expressome. In bacteria, the machine that reads DNA to turn it into a message and the machine that translates the message into protein are combined into single complex or "supermachine." In humans and other organisms, these machines are distinct. That bacteria link them has important implications for molecular biology, drug development and more. Credit: Robert LandickThere are many processes that take place in cells that are essential for life. Two of these, transcription and translation, allow the genetic information stored in DNA to be deciphered into the proteins that form all living things, from bacteria to humans to plants.
Scientists have known for half a century that these two processes are coupled in bacteria, but only now have they finally had a look at the structu

biologists find new source for brain's development

A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system.

plant cells survive but stop dividing upon dna damage

IMAGE: Green spots indicate a transcription factor that accumulates and inhibits cell division upon DNA damage. Researchers found an indispensable role of the transcription factor in arresting plant growth under stressful...
view more Credit: Masaaki Umeda(Nara, Japan) The cell cycle is the system through which a cell grows and divides. It is also how a cell passes its DNA to its progeny and is why the cell cycle ceases if the DNA is damaged, as otherwise it risks passing this damage to daughter cells. Scientists at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) have reported a new molecular mechanism that explains how this cessation occurs. The study, which can be read in Nature Communications, shows the transcription factor family MYB3R prevents progression to the division stage

rera applies to all incomplete projects

Developers can claim exemption from the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act only if work on their apartment or layout project is complete and if 60% of the flats or sites are registered. As per the final notification of the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Rules issued on Monday, a competent agency should certify that the project is complete. Besides, developers who have already submitted applications seeking completion and occupancy certificates after completing the project can also claim exemption. The notification stated that ongoing apartment projects wherein common areas and facilities have been handed over to the registered association of owners are excluded from the Act.This is aimed at protecting consumers’ interests and enhancing transparency in the real estate se

critical, contextualised journalism needed in the face of ai-produced copy

In spite of its limitations, automated journalism will expand. According to media researchers, this development underlines the need for critical, contextualised journalism.

ai takes the headaches out of transcribing voice recordings

Ask many interviewers about their least favorite part of the job and they'll almost always point to transcription. It can take hours to turn even a short chat into text, which is a serious pain for everyone from reporters to police interrogators. China tech giant Baidu may have a smarter approach: artificial intelligence. It just released a beta for SwiftScribe, a transcription app that uses a neural network to make sense of speech. The software not only promises relatively accurate speech-to-text processing thanks to training on "thousands of hours" of recordings, but learns from edits. It should account more for how people actually speak, saving you from making a load of edits.

400 million years of a stable relationship

IMAGE: This is a clarified root segment with fungus stained fluorescent green. Arbuscules resemble sponges around center of root.
view more Credit: Dr. Daniela FlossITHACA, NY-- Walking through a grassy field or forest take a moment to consider what lies beneath the surface. A web of plant roots interacts symbiotically with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi that extend their hyphae from the root system further into the earth, accessing nutrients such as phosphates to give to the plant in return for carbohydrates, tit for tat.Taking a much closer look inside root cortical cells, you will find dynamic, branching fungal structures called arbuscules where the two organisms can exchange their goods. "Each root cell builds a special compartment surrounded by a membrane to house the arbuscule.

clues to the molecular basis of balance in am symbiosis

A clarified root segment with fungus stained fluorescent green. Arbuscules resemble sponges around center of root. Credit: Dr. Daniela FlossWalking through a grassy field or forest take a moment to consider what lies beneath the surface. A web of plant roots interacts symbiotically with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi that extend their hyphae from the root system further into the earth, accessing nutrients such as phosphates to give to the plant in return for carbohydrates, tit for tat.
Taking a much closer look inside root cortical cells, you will find dynamic, branching fungal structures called arbuscules where the two organisms can exchange their goods. "Each root cell builds a special compartment surrounded by a membrane to house the arbuscule. Within this compartment, the arbuscul

breaking the protein-dna bond | eurekalert! science news

The verdict is in: too many single, flirty proteins can break up a strong relationship.A new interdisciplinary Northwestern University study reports that the important protein-DNA bond can be broken by unbound proteins floating around in the cell. This discovery sheds light on how molecules self-organize and how gene expression is dynamically controlled."The way proteins interact with DNA determines the biological activity of all living organisms," said John F. Marko, professor of molecular biosciences, physics, and astronomy in Northwestern's Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences. "Inevitably, any malfunction in this interaction network can lead to malevolent conditions. It is paramount to precisely understand the interaction mechanisms underlying protein-DNA associations."To understand t

uiowa study examines altered gene expression in heart failure

IMAGE: Pictured are heart tissue sections showing a normal mouse heart (left) and one with heart failure (right). The tissue sections were stained to enhance visualization. The failing heart is larger,...
view more Credit: Photo courtesy of the Grueter laboratory, University of Iowa Health CareHeart failure refers to a condition in which heart muscle becomes weakened over time, making it increasingly difficult for the heart to pump blood through the body like it should. It's a progressive disease that begins when the heart adapts to stressors--high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, or diabetes, for example--in order to work properly. These stressors can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy, in which the heart's left ventricle (pumping chamber) stretches, enlarges, and becomes thinner. E

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